The biodiversity of Țara Hațegului is tightly connected to the areas of vegetation displayed like an amphitheatre because of the low-lying relief. There are several vegetation areas and special habitats that correspond to each one. From the mountain down to the centre of the valley there are five layers of vegetation:
– alpine meadows over 1,800m (grasses, blueberry shrubs, etc.);
– evergreen forest between 1,200-1,800m (sometimes a mix of beech, rowan, fir tree);
– beech forest between 800-1,200m (mixed with similar species like lime, elm, ash) often forming a mosaic of pastures and meadows;
– oak forests and silvo-steppe at altitudes of less than 800m.
As for the fauna, Țara Hațegului is a crossroads of various types of habitats. In the 18th century the area was well-known as a paradise for hunters of fur animals.
The most important species of mammals found here are the bat, the chamois, the deer, the roe deer, the bear, the wolf and the lynx.
The birds are also well represented (owl, dwarf flycatcher, red-backed shrike, stork) as well as the reptiles and the amphibians (Northern crested newt, moor frog, viper, sand lizard).
Last but not least, recent studies carried out by teams of the Geopark showed the existence of a large number of rare and less known species of butterflies.